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Mongolia

Suburb of the Mongolian capital Ulan Bator

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Overview

Rich in raw materials but struggling with difficult conditions

With only two inhabitants per square kilometre, Mongolia is the most sparsely populated nation in the world. More than four times the size of Germany, this Central Asian country has a population of only around 3 million.

More than 50 per cent of the country’s surface area is covered by tree savannas or grassy steppes. There are mountain ranges in the West and the Gobi Desert in the South. Thirty per cent of the workforce earn their living in the agricultural sector (mainly from livestock farming). Conditions, however, are difficult.

Mongolia has an extreme climate, with low levels of precipitation and great variations in temperature, ranging from over 40 degrees Celsius in summer to minus 50 degrees Celsius in winter.

Mongolia has an abundance of raw materials; however, the country's export revenues depend on sharply fluctuating world market prices. Owing to its isolated geographic position, locked between Russia and China, Mongolia is highly dependent economically on its big neighbours.

Mongolia is currently ranked 92nd out of the 189 countries assessed in the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI). As a result of the severe economic crisis of the past years, nearly 30 per cent of the population were living in poverty in 2017.

Development is hampered by weak infrastructure, most notably in the areas of energy and transport. Rural areas in particular have not shared in the country's economic progress. The nomadic population in particular, is threatened with the loss of their livelihoods as a result of increasing environmental degradation.

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Development data for Mongolia

  • Sükhbaatar Square in the Mongolian capital Ulan Bator
    Political situation

    Successful transformation of the political system

    Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Mongolia was quick to develop democratic and market structures in a peaceful manner. Since 1990, free and fair parliamentary elections have been held on a regular basis, while changes of government have proceeded peacefully.

  • Processing plant of the Boroo gold mine, Mongolia
    Economic situation

    Vast potential for growth

    Owing to its abundance of natural resources, the country has great potential for further economic growth. However, it is very dependent on demand for raw materials – in particular from its neighbour China, which accounts for 90 per cent of Mongolian exports.

Sükhbaatar Square in the Mongolian capital Ulan Bator
Political situation

Successful transformation of the political system

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Mongolia was quick to develop democratic and market structures in a peaceful manner. Since 1990, free and fair parliamentary elections have been held on a regular basis, while changes of government have proceeded peacefully.

Human rights in Mongolia are enshrined in the constitution and are largely respected. The country has an active civil society with numerous citizens' movements and self-help initiatives.

Although all of the political players are agreed on the country’s democratic and market-oriented course, there are many challenges that need to be addressed. However, governance is still weak and institutions still have limited capacities. Because of this, important reforms in the financial and energy sectors cannot be properly put into effect.

The challenge of corruption

Widespread corruption is a serious problem. The government has passed anti-corruption laws and put monitoring bodies in place. Despite these positive developments, the non-governmental organisation Transparency International ranks the country 103rd out of 180 countries listed on its 2017 Corruption Perceptions Index (compared with 80th in 2014, and 87th in 2016).

Processing plant of the Boroo gold mine, Mongolia
Economic situation

Vast potential for growth

Mongolia’s transition to a market economy has been a success. Some 85 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP) is currently generated by private companies. Moreover, the country is going through a fundamental structural transformation – transitioning from an agricultural nation to an economy based mainly on exports of raw materials. The share that the agricultural sector contributes to GDP has fallen from roughly 30 per cent in 2000 to approximately 10 per cent in 2017. Simultaneously, the value created by the country's industrial sector has risen to around 30 per cent, and 90 per cent of Mongolia's exports now come from the industrial sector.

An economy dominated by raw materials

Owing to its abundance of natural resources, the country has great potential for further economic growth. However, it is very dependent on demand for raw materials – in particular from its neighbour China, which accounts for 90 per cent of Mongolian exports.

In 2017, Mongolia's economy grew by around five per cent; for 2018, it is expected to grow by 6.2 per cent. The International Monetary Fund expects that the growth rate over the coming years will continue to be about five per cent. Following the exploitation of new mineral deposits in Mongolia and the recovery of commodity prices on the world market, the inflow of foreign investments has increased again. In its strategy for sustainable development, the Mongolian government has set itself the ambitious goal between now and 2030 of achieving annual growth rates in excess of 6.6 per cent over the long term, so that it will be able to finance the desired sustainable development of the country.

Poverty is causing rural exodus

Although poverty has been reduced in the past, more than 30 per cent of the Mongolian population still lives below the national poverty line. In 2017, the official rate of unemployment was around seven per cent. Yet experts believe it is in fact considerably higher than that.

Many rural inhabitants move to the capital of the country, Ulan Bator, in search of income opportunities. Roughly 45 per cent of Mongolians now live in the capital city. However, its labour market is barely able to absorb any more newcomers.

German development cooperation with Mongolia

Development cooperation between Germany and Mongolia began in 1991/1992, after the country underwent a political and economic transition. Germany is currently the third biggest bilateral donor, after Japan and South Korea, and the most important European partner for Mongolia.

Through its structure-building activities, Germany is helping to ensure that the people of Mongolia, and especially the poor, can share in the economic development of their country; that the country's economic development is environmentally sustainable; and that vital natural resources are conserved.

At the government negotiations in Ulan Bator in October 2018, the two sides agreed to continue their cooperation in the following priority areas:

  • Biodiversity
  • Promotion of sustainable economic development (expanded from "sustainable management of raw materials")
  • Energy efficiency

In its intergovernmental negotiations with Mongolia, the German government made commitments worth 55.4 million euros, of which 32 million euros will go to Financial Cooperation projects and 23.4 million euros to Technical Cooperation projects.

Priority Area "Biodiversity"

Protecting ecosystems, maintaining biodiversity

In order to preserve Mongolia's unique natural heritage and at the same time improve the living conditions for the people, more must be done to promote and manage nature reserves. Germany is currently supporting eleven Mongolian nature reserves, which are located in the north, east and centre of the country. In future, the west of the country is to be included in this cooperation as well. Priority areas of cooperation are (i) improving the management of protected areas, (ii) developing management and business plans, and (iii) financing infrastructure projects. Creating income opportunities for the people living in close proximity to the protected areas, for example through tourism, is a way to help reduce poverty in rural areas.

Through a new technical cooperation project, Mongolia's Environment Ministry and selected regional administrative bodies will receive advisory support in drafting and enacting legislation to promote environmentally responsible methods of mining.

Mongolia has a rich diversity of ecosystems and biological species. Its biological diversity, however, is under threat as a result of climate change and the intensive use of its natural resources.

In recent years, reforms of its environmental policies have created a better basis for protecting the country's biodiversity. However, their implementation could still be improved. So far, the government has designated some 18 per cent of the country as protected areas, yet because of the size of the territory, surveillance is extremely difficult.

Workshop for welders in the Hasu Megawatt vocational training centre, Ulan Bator, Mongolei
Priority area "Promotion of sustainable economic development"

Improving the general conditions and encouraging the potential for growth

The aim of German development cooperation activities in this priority area, which was restructured in 2018, is to improve the general conditions for sustainable, inclusive and resources-based economic growth. This includes, in particular, fostering practice-oriented vocational education and training, strengthening legal certainty, professionalising the justice system, and strengthening the political competence of those responsible for formulating strategies and policy in the extractive sector.

In addition, in the vocational training and further education sector, training is being provided for technical experts and executives. The German-Mongolian Institute for Resources and Technology (GMIT), founded in 2013, which receives support from the BMZ, offers practice-oriented bachelor degrees in Environmental Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Raw Materials/Process Engineering. A part-time masters programme in International Natural Resources Management was introduced at the start of the 2017/18 winter term.

The German and Mongolian governments agree that the private sector needs to become much more involved in cooperation in the future. It should help create more diverse economic structures and increase value creation within the country. Among other things, efforts are being made to establish development partnerships (PPP) with German companies. So far, however, relatively few German companies have had business dealings in Mongolia, despite potential business opportunities.

Mongolia’s resources include coal, copper, gold, many different minerals and ores, and also rare earth metals.

In a bid to reduce the dependence of the country's economy on the export of these raw materials and make Mongolian products more competitive, the government wants to get more mineral resources processed by local companies and to diversify the economy.

Mongolia joined the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) in December 2005.

Mongolia is the first country with which Germany has concluded a raw materials partnership agreement. The agreement, signed in October 2011, aims to promote closer cooperation in the fields of resources, technology and industry.

Ulan Bator, Mongolia: Housing development with solar system for water heating. In the background a coal power plant.
Priority Area "Energy Efficiency"

Measures to use fuels more efficiently and reduce air pollution

Germany is supporting the modernisation of power plants, substations and public distribution grids. This will enable energy efficiency to be increased while at the same time cutting greenhouse green emissions.

In the past, the Mongolian government has received support in further developing approaches and strategies for improving energy efficiency as well as advice on the introduction of consumer-oriented, cost-covering and socially-acceptable tariff systems. Now, these concepts and strategies are to be put into practice. To achieve this, German experts are helping Mongolian authorities and private enterprises to integrate measures to improve energy efficiency in their planning and administration processes.

Moreover, in order to reduce air pollution and the related health risks in Ulan Bator, experts are working closely with local administrations and construction companies to refurbish and insulate public buildings such as schools and kindergartens in traditional yurt settlements (known as ger in Mongolia). These measures include components to upskill Mongolian workers so that, in future, they will be able to carry out this kind of modernisation work on their own.

In view of the extreme climatic conditions, a reliable supply of electricity and heat is essential for the survival of the people of Mongolia. The country's growing energy needs are largely met by old, inefficient coal-fired power plants. The outdated electricity and heat supply systems can hardly meet the growing demand, so Mongolia is dependent on electricity imports.

The country's transmission and distribution infrastructure is also outdated and vulnerable. In rural areas in particular, the desolate heating systems threaten to lead to failures in the heat supply. Even public buildings such as schools, kindergartens and hospitals often cannot be heated sufficiently in winter.

In the cities, especially in the capital Ulan Bator, the population suffers from extreme air pollution, especially in the winter months. It is produced in coal-fired power plants and also because many people burn waste in their stoves in addition to coal and wood. The uncontrolled, inefficient use of fuels of poor quality results in a very high level of pollutants that are hazardous to health. Air pollution is now causing an epidemic-like spread of respiratory diseases, which are also a burden on the national economy.

Map of Mongolia

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Development facts and figures

  Mongolia Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Mongolia Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Ulan Bator, approximately 1.4 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 1,564,120 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 92 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.PUBL.ZS

Public health spending as a percentage of gross domestic product

Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TETC.ZS

Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Mongolia

BMZ glossary

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