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Cambodia

Stone figure in the temple Ta Prohm near Angkor Wat, Cambodia

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Overview

A new start after decades of violence

In recent years, Cambodia’s history has been marked by war, civil war and extreme human suffering. During the Viet Nam War, the country was the target of a bombing campaign aimed at destroying the other side’s bases and supply lines. After that, from 1975 to 1979, about 1.7 million people fell victim to the reign of terror presided over by the Khmer Rouge. Practically the entire Cambodian intellectual elite was murdered and the country’s infrastructure was totally destroyed. In 1979, Viet Nam occupied Cambodia and the Khmer Rouge launched a guerrilla war. It was not until 1993 that free elections once more took place. In actual fact the decades-long civil war only ended in early 1999, after the last of the Khmer Rouge fighters surrendered.

In recent years, Cambodia has achieved remarkable development results. However, in order to safeguard these achievements in the long term, the government needs to introduce and follow through on a range of political reforms. Areas where particular challenges lie ahead are democracy, the division of powers and the rule of law, human rights, public administration, the justice system, the financial system and tackling the widespread problem of corruption.

Development cooperation

Germany is supporting Cambodia as the country goes through a process of development and democratisation. The main themes of this cooperation are regional economic development, developing the health sector, and promoting democracy, civil society and public administration. Furthermore, the German government is supporting the work of the Khmer Rouge war crimes tribunal, which has the task of providing justice for the victims of the genocide.

Straight to

Development facts and figures from Cambodia

  • A tuk tuk driver in Phnom Penh, Cambodia
    Political situation

    Considerable governance shortcomings

    Since 1993, Cambodia has had a constitutional monarchy and a democratic multi-party system. The political climate had deteriorated in the run-up to the parliamentary elections held in 2018, but now scope is re-emerging for civil society activity.

  • Central market in Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia
    Social situation

    Substantial development achievements

    After the civil war came to an end in the 1990s, a new start was needed in almost every area of Cambodian society. Government institutions had been smashed, the infrastructure was in ruins and almost the entire intellectual elite of the country had been murdered or driven abroad.

  • Car ferry on the Mekong river, Cambodia
    Economic situation

    Stable growth, loss of biodiversity

    Accession to international organisations such as the Association of South East Asian Nations, ASEAN (1998), and the World Trade Organization (WTO, 2004) put an end to Cambodia’s economic isolation.

A tuk tuk driver in Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Political situation

Considerable governance shortcomings

Since 1993, Cambodia has had a constitutional monarchy and a democratic multi-party system. The political climate had deteriorated in the run-up to the parliamentary elections held in 2018, but now scope is re-emerging for civil society activity.

The ruling Cambodian People’s Party (CPP) has obstructed the work of politicians critical of the government, and used legislative, administrative and judicial powers to put pressure on political opponents and independent media, and to restrict the activities of civil society.

After its opponents, the Cambodia National Rescue Party (CNRP), received more than 40 per cent of the votes cast in the communal elections in June 2017, the government stepped up its crackdown on the opposition: the CNRP was dissolved and its leaders either arrested or forced into exile. According to the official count, the governing CPP received 77 per cent of the votes cast in the parliamentary elections held in July 2018, winning all 125 seats in parliament. Prime Minister Hun Sen, who has ruled over the country without interruption since 1985, was confirmed in office.

The European Union described the election result as lacking credibility and "not representative of the democratic will of the Cambodian electorate"

Human rights

In Cambodia, freedom of opinion, freedom of association and freedom of assembly are all curbed. There have been repeated instances of undesirables being arbitrarily arrested; in addition to political opponents, groups like homeless people, street children, prostitutes and people with disabilities have also been targeted.

Although the constitution accords them equality, women suffer discrimination, especially regarding access to justice, land and the labour market. Violence against women is widespread.

Since 2000, more than half a million people have had their land seized and have been forcibly resettled as a consequence of land concessions awarded to national and foreign companies. The inhabitants of informal urban settlements, small farmers and members of indigenous peoples are particularly affected by this issue.

Corruption

Corruption is widespread in Cambodia and is traditionally hardly questioned in Cambodian society. Whereas backhanders in everyday life are declining, large-scale corruption remains a problem. Legislation to combat corruption has only been in place since 2010. In the education and health sectors, in particular, bribes are a way to top up low salaries. Corruption also plays a major role when it comes to the awarding of land use rights.

On the Corruption Perceptions Index published in 2018 by the non-governmental organisation Transparency International, Cambodia ranks 161st out of the 180 countries indexed.

Central market in Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia
Social situation

Substantial development achievements

After the civil war came to an end in the 1990s, a new start was needed in almost every area of Cambodian society. Government institutions had been smashed, the infrastructure was in ruins and almost the entire intellectual elite of the country had been murdered or driven abroad. Against this backdrop, the progress that has been made since then is all the more remarkable. Cambodia has been achieving high rates of economic growth, and efforts to reduce child and maternal mortality, tackle HIV and AIDS, and clear landmines have been crowned with success.

Income is unevenly distributed

In 2003, half the population was still living below the national poverty line, but by 2016, according to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the national census, that figure had fallen to just 13.5 per cent. However, the majority of the population is living only just above the official poverty line. All it takes is a slight increase in spending needs, for example as a result of illness, for these people to find themselves plunged back into poverty. The main beneficiaries of the economic development that has been achieved are the urban elite and the still very small middle class. More than 90 per cent of the poor population lives in the country. One third of the children in Cambodia are still undernourished.

Shortfalls in public goods

The health system and public infrastructure are still being developed. The education system, too, still needs further improvement. About 75 per cent of the population now has guaranteed access to clean drinking water (2000: 42 per cent) and about 42 per cent has proper sanitation (2000: 16 per cent).

Cambodia has a young population: more than 30 per cent of Cambodians are under the age of 15. Unemployment and under-employment are already key problems for Cambodia’s economic development, and population growth is threatening to make these problems even worse.

The current Human Development Index (HDI) ranks Cambodia 146th out of 189 countries.

Car ferry on the Mekong river, Cambodia
Economic situation

Stable growth, loss of biodiversity

Accession to international organisations such as the Association of South East Asian Nations, ASEAN (1998), and the World Trade Organization (WTO, 2004) put an end to Cambodia’s economic isolation.

In recent years, the country has experienced economic growth of about seven per cent. The most important economic sectors are agriculture, textiles and shoe production, the construction industry and tourism.

Cambodia’s economic structure has undergone major changes since the start of the 1990s: agriculture has been declining in terms of importance and now accounts for just 23 per cent of gross domestic product. Meanwhile, the services sector now accounts for about 40 per cent of economic activity.

Massive loss of rain forest

Although official legislation meant to protect the environment exists, implementation of the legal provisions is inadequate. For example, approval is granted for dam projects on the Mekong River and concessions are awarded for large-scale logging activities, without adequate consideration being given to the sometimes serious damage being caused to the environment.

Satellite pictures evaluated by the data portal Open Development Cambodia indicate that in 2014 only about 48 per cent of the country was still covered by forest. This is compared to 66 per cent forest cover back in 2000.

German development cooperation with Cambodia

The priority areas of Germany’s activities in Cambodia are regional economic development, strengthening the health system and decentralisation.

The priority area programme for regional economic development has been instrumental in improving the living conditions of about one million households in rural areas: incomes have been increased by more than 50 per cent; transport costs have been reduced by 40 per cent; more than 2,500 kilometres of roads have been repaired and adapted to the consequences of climate change so that they can still be used when flooding occurs.

The priority area programme for health has improved access to good medical care. Maternal and infant mortality has fallen by more than two thirds. Almost 90 per cent of all births are now attended by qualified health personnel (in 2000 it was only 32 per cent). Poor people now have free access to health services, thanks also to German support. The establishment and expansion of health insurance for all is progressing.

The priority area programme for decentralisation is strengthening districts and municipalities in their work. A one-window office system has been established for all administrative matters at the local authority level. Tables showing the administrative fees to be charged for public services in the district offices mean that citizens know the official price for these transactions.

Furthermore, Germany is supporting the work of the Khmer Rouge Tribunal with reconciliation projects. Mine clearance activities are also being supported.

Several regional projects complete the range of development cooperation activities in which the German government is engaged in Cambodia. For example, German support has helped improve working and social conditions in factories.

In 2017 and 2018, Germany spent about 37 million euros in development funding on improving living conditions in Cambodia.

More income through sustainable supply chains in Cambodia
Priority area "Regional Economic Development"

Promoting the local economy

Around three quarters of Cambodians live in the countryside. Although poverty has been significantly reduced in recent years, poverty levels are still above average in rural areas.

The aim of development cooperation activities in the priority area "Regional Economic Development” is to promote the local economy in order to reduce poverty, raise incomes and secure adequate nutrition.

With Germany’s help, over 2,500 kilometres of access roads have been repaired or newly built. These roads ensure that people living in rural areas have access to larger towns and cities, especially in the difficult rainy season. Good road access is important so that people can get to health centres, schools and markets.

New dialogue formats for interaction between farmers, local authority representatives and the business community are intended to help better recognise and make use of existing economic potential.

Business training teaches poorer and disadvantaged people in particular about important aspects of agriculture. German development cooperation activities here involve working with travel companies and guides on ways to ensure that the people living in the vicinity of the Angkor temples benefit, too, from the tourists who visit. At the same time the tourists also learn more about how people in Cambodia live.

Through its development cooperation Germany is supporting efforts to help poor landless Cambodians acquire land rights to social land provided by the state. Furthermore, farmers are being offered know-how and assistance, for example with regard to preparing the ground for planting and improving the soil. In order to make sure that fields and markets can be accessed, infrastructure development is being supported through German development cooperation. As a result, food security has been ensured for almost 4,000 households.

Furthermore, via partner banks, KfW Development Bank is granting loans for micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in rural areas so that they can make new investments.

Mothers and children participating in a growth study are waiting in a waiting room in Prey Veng, Cambodia.
Priority area "Health"

Ensuring health care for poor people

The Cambodian health system has continuously improved since the 1990s. Despite clear progress, however, the relatively high number of deaths among mothers and newborn babies still occurring in Cambodia compared with other countries is cause for concern.

There is a marked difference between healthcare delivery in towns and cities and health care in rural areas, and between the services available to the rich and those available to poor people. The quality of the services provided is often inferior.

The government has given itself the goal of setting up a comprehensive nationwide system of social protection. Germany, together with other donors, is assisting the Cambodian government in realising this goal, for example through a health fund.

Through its development cooperation, Germany is also assisting the Cambodian government in introducing clinical safeguards, training health personnel, and setting up an accreditation system for private and public health services.

In order to contribute to mother and child health, the quality of emergency care for mothers and newborn babies is being improved. For example, midwives are being given special training in dealing with complicated births.

Torture chamber in Tuol Sleng, a former school in Phnom Penh, which was converted by the Khmer Rouge into a "re-education camp". Of the approximately 20,000 prisoners, only six or seven survived. Today Tuol Sleng is a museum and memorial against the genocide.
Priority area "Democracy, civil society and public administration"

Fostering decentralisation

Good governance is one of the most important prerequisites for sustainable development and successful poverty reduction in Cambodia. Germany is advising its Cambodian partners on decentralisation and on reforming public administration.

At the national level, the ministries responsible for these matters are being assisted in devolving tasks and decision-making powers to districts and municipalities, and in formulating minimum standards for the delivery of public services. The project is assisting local government entities and local-level specialised authorities in improving their services and in becoming more responsive and more transparent.

Within the framework of these administrative reforms, Germany is promoting merit-based pay for public sector officials. Supported by Germany, the Cambodian government is introducing new instruments for staff development and staff management.

Programme for strengthening civil society

In 2014, an operational framework was agreed between Cambodian civil society and the government: the Implementation Plan for the Social Accountability Framework. Supported by civil society, Cambodian citizens can access this framework to articulate where public services at the local level need to be improved (for example in the fields of education, health, water and sanitation), and reach agreements with the decentralised administrative authorities. Within this programme Germany is supporting the government side of service delivery in enhancing budget transparency and also in making legal decisions more transparent. Citizens’ forums help ensure that decisions within the public sector are made without discrimination and are responsive to people’s needs.

Addressing the legacy of the crimes committed by the Khmer Rouge

In order for the country to be able to build up democratic and rule of law structures, Cambodian society as a whole needs to address the aftermath of the atrocities committed by the Khmer Rouge regime. The BMZ is therefore assisting programmes aimed at helping the people of Cambodia process what happened in the past and learn how to handle conflict without resorting to violence, and is also supporting the tribunal set up to deal with Khmer Rouge war crimes, the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC), which is composed of both international and Cambodian judges. In the meantime, the first defendants have been sentenced to life imprisonment and other leading figures in the Khmer Rouge are under investigation.

Through the BMZ and the Federal Foreign Office, the German government has so far provided about 17 million euros for the work of the ECCC, as well as for accompanying projects for reconciliation and justice.

The German NGO, Civil Peace Service, is making an important contribution towards reconciliation and dialogue across the whole of Cambodian society. It is assisting with the effort to investigate and prosecute the crimes committed from a judicial and from a historical perspective, is supporting the Toul-Sleng Genocide Museum, and reparation projects and out-of-court compensation measures, and is contributing through youth work and education activities towards creating a peaceful future for the country.

Map of Cambodia

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Temple complex Angkor Wat in Cambodia

Development facts and figures

  Cambodia Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Kingdom of Cambodia Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Phnom Penh, approximately 1.5 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 181,040 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 146 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.PUBL.ZS

Public health spending as a percentage of gross domestic product

Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TETC.ZS

Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Motorcycle on a road in Siem Reap, Cambodia

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Cambodia

BMZ glossary

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