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Indonesia

Volcano towering over the town of Manado in Indonesia

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Overview

A political heavyweight in South-East Asia

Bhinneka Tunggal Ika – unity in diversity: this motto, which comes from Sanskrit, has adorned the national emblem of the Republic of Indonesia ever since the country proclaimed its independence in 1945. The approximately 264 million inhabitants of this island country belong to roughly 300 different ethnic groups and speak over 700 languages and dialects. Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world. With almost 90 per cent of people adhering to Islam, it is home to the largest Islamic community on Earth.

Indonesia is located on the Pacific Ring of Fire, the most geologically active region on Earth, which is frequently hit by earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcano eruptions. In September 2018, the island of Sulawesi was hit by an earthquake followed by a tsunami, destroying large parts of the affected region and killing more than 2,000 people.

Peaceful transition to democracy

For more than three decades, Indonesia was under the dictatorial rule of President Haji Mohammad Suharto. In May 1998, after serious social unrest triggered by the Asian financial crisis of 1997-8, he was forced to step down. There followed a largely peaceful change in the country's political course and, since then, Indonesia has been undergoing a far-reaching process of social transformation. The country has already made significant progress and is now regarded as a largely stable democracy.

Both politically and economically, Indonesia is shouldering more and more responsibility in South-East Asia. The emerging economy is a member of the Group of 20 (G20). It is an economic heavyweight in the region and thus plays a key role in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

Development cooperation

Relations between Indonesia and Germany are good. The bilateral development cooperation programme between the two countries has been designed to take account of Indonesia's regional and global importance. Just like Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa, Indonesia is one of the countries that are regarded as major regional powers of the future and have a crucial role to play, as "global development partners", in resolving global development issues.

For example, Indonesia is an important partner for Germany's development cooperation in the field of climate action. The environment and energy are thus priority areas of Indonesian-German development cooperation. Germany also supports Indonesia's efforts to foster sustainable economic development, with a special focus on vocational training.

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Priority areas of cooperation with Indonesia

Development data for Indonesia

Federal Minister Gerd Müller and Bambang Brodjonegoro, Minister for Planning in Indonesia, at the sigining of the agreement on a new vocational training programme in Jakarta, Indonesia

Press release 12.05.2017

Vocational training and palm oil production – Minister Müller starts visit to Indonesia

Federal Minister for Development Gerd Müller meets Li Wei, head of the Development Research Center of the State Council (DRC) in Beijing

Press release 10.05.2017

Minister Müller travels to Asia: Sustainable development and training for young people

German Development Minister Gerd Müller presents the future focal areas of German development policy in Asia.

Press release 17.06.2015

Shaping sustainable growth in Asia: Minister Müller presents new BMZ policy on Asia

Street scene in Jakarta, Indonesia
Political situation

Overcoming the consequences of years of dictatorship

Since the removal of the Suharto dictatorship in 1998, Indonesia has been going through a process of political transformation. Numerous reform laws and decrees have been adopted since then. For example, freedom of the press has been granted, the banking sector has been reformed, social protection systems have been established or enhanced, and the police and military have withdrawn completely from the political arena.

The regional conflicts and sometimes violent disputes of the past have become less severe. The former Indonesian province of Timor-Leste, the occupation of which was accompanied by grave human rights violations, became independent in 2002. Since then, both countries have been working towards reconciliation and good relations.

Decentralisation and participation by the people

Positive impacts have also been achieved through a decentralisation programme that has given more powers to local and regional authorities. The transfer of considerable budget funds to districts and municipal authorities has provided significant new scope for local public investment. That scope must now be used in an effective and transparent manner.

Rule of law and governance

For a long time, the political culture in Indonesia was characterised by the government's clientelism, parliament's weak position, a lack of transparency in the judicial, financial and security sectors, and a cumbersome administration prone to corruption.

Corruption remains widespread, and the government's efforts to combat it sometimes meet with a good deal of resistance. In the Corruption Perceptions Index compiled by the non-governmental organisation Transparency International, Indonesia ranks 96th out of the 180 countries evaluated (2017).

However, these deficits are increasingly being made a subject of public discussion by an ever more confident civil society. Political liberalisation has created new opportunities for people to voice their interests collectively.

Jakarta harbour
Economic situation

Challenges for sustainable growth

The dynamic economic development of the last ten years, with annual growth rates of about five to six per cent, has made Indonesia an attractive market. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) expects that economic growth will continue at the same rate in the coming years.

An economy in transition

However, numerous challenges remain. Industrial competitiveness and the private sector's willingness to invest are hindered by frequent state interventions, ubiquitous corruption, lack of state capacity, long-neglected infrastructure and a generally poor level of educational attainment.

The informal sector accounts for around fifty per cent of gross national income.

In key sectors of the economy, state-owned enterprises still exist, with some operating as monopolies and others competing against the private sector. Since 2010, however, state-owned enterprises are gradually being privatised, and efforts are being made to enhance the investment conditions for foreign companies.

Great potential in extractive resources

Indonesia has oil, natural gas and coal reserves as well as numerous other mineral resources. After Malaysia, the country is the world's biggest producer of palm oil. Further export commodities are timber, cocoa, coffee, tea, tobacco, natural rubber and textiles.

With effect from 31 December 2015, the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) came into being. By establishing an economic community, the ten members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations have expressed their intention to take regional integration a step further.

Dancers in traditional costume in Borneo
Social situation

Regional disparity not yet overcome

Notwithstanding the fact that generally, developments in the past few years have been positive, there is still considerable disparity between Indonesia's regions. Java, the central island, is the political and economic hub of the Indonesian archipelago. In the past, there has been little investment on the other islands in infrastructure, education or basic social protection.

So far, the country's economic growth and wealth of resources are only benefiting a small section of the population. The lives of large numbers of Indonesians are still dominated by poverty. According to the World Bank, some 27 per cent of the Indonesian population are poor or vulnerable to poverty. The current Human Development Index (HDI) ranks Indonesia 116th out of 189 countries.

The role of religious communities

Indonesia's constitution guarantees freedom of religion within the scope of the six officially recognised religions (Islam, Buddhism, Protestant and Catholic Christianity, Confucianism and Hinduism). However, shortcomings in the protection of minority groups and in the rule of law mean that persons belonging to religious minorities frequently face disadvantages, and even threats and violence from Islamist groups.

In the past, there were repeated terrorist attacks on public institutions and tourist destinations. The Indonesian government is taking decisive action against terrorist networks, and a large majority of the population reject Islamist movements. The country's main Muslim organisations support an interpretation of Islam based on inter-faith understanding.

Women reading and interpreting the Koran in the Istiqlal Mosque in Jakarta, Indonesia
Deforestation near Labanan Makarti in Borneo
Environment

Protecting valuable forest areas

Indonesia is still home to the world's third largest rain forest, following Brazil and the Congo Basin. However, illegal logging and too intensive use of the forest is slowly destroying this valuable natural resource. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), more than 27 million hectares of forest were lost between 1990 and 2015 – an area about the size of New Zealand. Satellite images show that between 1990 and 2010, on the island of Sumatra alone nearly half of the primary forest was destroyed. In addition, peat bogs are being drained and cleared through slash-and-burn methods for agricultural use – to make way for palm oil plantations, for example.

As a result of plantation owners' slash-and-burn techniques, large-scale forest and peat fires break out regularly during the dry season. In 2015, they went completely out of control. Within a few weeks, a forest area nearly the size of Wales was lost.

In response to the environmental disaster of 2015, the Indonesian government announced a number of preventive measures. Among other things, it is going to restore the hydrology of drained peatlands, and there will be systematic action to identify and punish perpetrators who have deliberately started a fire. The government is also planning to transfer the use rights for more than twelve million hectares of forest to local authorities. Moreover, a moratorium was passed on issuing licences for new plantations and mines and on transforming primary forest into agricultural land.

Vegetable plots at the foot of of the volcano Merapi, Indonesia
Mother with her children in a train compartment, Jakarta, Indonesia

Development potential

Its wealth of resources represents Indonesia's greatest development potential. In addition to oil and gas, the country also has tin, nickel, copper, coal, bauxite, gold, timber and many agricultural products. Its extensive coastal waters are considered to have the world's most abundant stocks of fish.

Investment in education

Education and training remain a key issue under President Joko Widodo. The government's goal in the education sector is to improve the quality of education and people's access to education, especially for poorer sections of the population. Since 2003, government administrations have pledged to invest twenty per cent of the budget in education. The government has fulfilled this pledge every year since then.

Since November 2009, a Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the EU and Indonesia has been in force. The Agreement provides for close political, economic and cultural cooperation. In July 2016, negotiations began for a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) between the EU and Indonesia.

German development cooperation with Indonesia

Indonesia is one of Germany's global development partners for international development cooperation. Indonesian-German development cooperation focuses on three priority areas:

  • Energy
  • Sustainable economic development / Technical and vocational education and training
  • Environmental protection

The two sides will continue to pursue the former priority area of "Good governance" as a cross-cutting issue in all areas of cooperation. Specifically, Germany is supporting measures to increase government revenue and to reduce corruption.

At the government negotiations in 2017, Germany committed funding worth some 158.5 million euros to Indonesia. Of this amount, 32 million euros has been earmarked for Technical Cooperation. 126.5 million euros will go towards Financial Cooperation.

  • A worker at the Lahendong geothermal site on Sulawesi Island, Indonesia. The hot steam produced here is fed to a nearby power plant to generate electricity.
    Energy

    Boosting sustainable energy

    In order to protect the global climate, which is a global public good, Germany has entered into a strategic partnership with Indonesia. One key area of action of this partnership is the reduction of emissions by making greater use of renewable energies.

  • Vocational school for industrial mechanics ATMI in Solo in Indonesia. Around 450 pupils are trained here in various fields, such as welders, locksmiths and toolmakers.
    Sustainable economic development

    Jobs and social protection for a growing population

    Economic growth is a prerequisite for poverty reduction. Germany supports Indonesia in shaping economic development in such a way that it is ecologically responsible and broadly effective.

  • Worker harvesting palm oil fruit
    Environmental protection

    Forest conservation and sustainable supply chains

    Since the bulk of Indonesia's greenhouse gas emissions originates from the destruction of tropical forests, the BMZ is helping the Indonesian government to implement forestry reforms that facilitate sustainable forest management.

A worker at the Lahendong geothermal site on Sulawesi Island, Indonesia. The hot steam produced here is fed to a nearby power plant to generate electricity.
Energy

Boosting sustainable energy

In order to protect the global climate, which is a global public good, Germany has entered into a strategic partnership with Indonesia. One key area of action of this partnership is the reduction of emissions by making greater use of renewable energies. Germany is supporting the expansion of supply networks as well as rural off-grid electrification. Among other things, Germany is providing support to the Indonesian government's national geothermal energy programme.

Preparations are also under way for projects to bring electrification to remote islands in the archipelago, and to encourage the use of sustainable hydropower. By 2025, the share of renewable energy sources in total energy production is to reach 23 per cent.

Vocational school for industrial mechanics ATMI in Solo in Indonesia. Around 450 pupils are trained here in various fields, such as welders, locksmiths and toolmakers.
Sustainable economic development / Technical and vocational education and training

Jobs and social protection for a growing population

One aim of Germany's efforts in this priority area is to improve investment conditions and to make selected value chains environmentally sustainable. Another aim is to use a vocational training programme in order to increase the number of well-trained skilled workers. With the help of the German-Indonesian Chamber of Industry and Commerce (EKONID), the German government is also supporting the development of vocational education in line with market needs, in order to improve the employment and income opportunities of young people in Indonesia. The focus is on manufacturing and production and on sustainable tourism.

In addition, support is being provided to the Indonesian Ministry of Development Planning with regard to the introduction of the newly established health insurance system. This universal contributory health insurance was set up in January 2014 and already has more than 167 million members.

Worker harvesting palm oil fruit
Environmental protection

Forest conservation and sustainable supply chains

Since the bulk of Indonesia's greenhouse gas emissions originates from the destruction of tropical forests, the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) is helping the Indonesian government to implement forestry reforms that facilitate sustainable forest management. Under the REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) programme, alternatives to logging are to be demonstrated to the local population. The BMZ also assists the Indonesian government in carrying out its plan to hand over forests to local authorities. It is providing advice, for instance, on how to set up local forest authorities.

Within this priority area, Germany is also providing advisory services to the Indonesian government on how to adjust its climate change mitigation policy and how to implement climate action plans. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in urban areas, Germany is supporting pioneering approaches to climate-friendly waste management.

Moreover, Germany is the biggest donor to Indonesia's national parks. The BMZ is supporting Indonesia in setting up and expanding protected areas and protecting biodiversity. Another focus of Indonesian-German development cooperation is on providing advice to rural people with regard to the development of sustainable supply chains, especially for palm oil, cocoa and rubber.

Development facts and figures

  Indonesia Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Republic of Indonesia Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Jakarta, approximately 30 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 1,910,931 sq km (2017) 357,380 sq km (2017)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 116 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.PUBL.ZS

Public health spending as a percentage of gross domestic product

Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TETC.ZS

Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Map of Indonesia

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Indonesia

BMZ glossary

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