Content

Georgia

View of the Georgian capital Tbilisi

more

Overview

Connecting point between Europe and Asia

Although Georgia was for a long time part of Russia, and subsequently the Soviet Union, the country managed to preserve its cultural identity, including its own language and its own alphabet. For a long time, the republic also did well economically – until the breakup of the Soviet Union, which led to economic collapse in Georgia.

Starting in the mid-1990s, the economy experienced a strong recovery. Since then, however, the country has repeatedly been shaken by new crises.

Territorial conflict

One unresolved issue is the territorial conflict surrounding Abkhazia and South Ossetia. These two regions are striving to achieve independence from Georgia, and are being supported by Russia in this endeavour. In August 2008, the conflict escalated temporarily into war between Russia and Georgia. Since then, diplomatic relations between the two countries have been suspended.

While Georgia has largely recovered from the aftermath of the war and the impacts of the global economic and financial crisis, large sections of the Georgian population continue to suffer from poverty, underemployment and unemployment.

Cooperation with Germany

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Germany has been actively engaged in helping to stabilise the South Caucasus region (Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan).

Georgia is one of the countries supported by Germany through thematic and regional programmes. Through its South Caucasus Initiative, the German government is making an active contribution to the process of political, economic and social transformation in Georgia and its neighbouring countries. The development cooperation programme focuses on sustainable economic development; environmental policy, the protection and sustainable use of natural resources; and democracy, civil society and public administration.

Scroll down for more detailed information on the situation in Georgia and on Germany's development activities there.

Straight to:

Priority areas of cooperation with Georgia

Development facts and figures from Georgia

People in the Freedom Square of the Georgian Capital Tbilisi during the Rose Revolution in October 2003
Political situation

Enhancing democracy and the rule of law

Since regaining independence in 1991, Georgia has been faced with both internal and regional challenges. The democratisation process was hampered by nepotism, corruption and electoral fraud. In order to put an end to this, young opposition activists launched the Rose Revolution in autumn 2003. This led to a peaceful change of government. Mikheil Saakashvili was elected president. He was re-elected for a further term in 2008.

However, in the years that followed, authoritarian tendencies within the government and the growing gap between rich and poor led to popular protests on several occasions. The parliamentary elections held in October 2012 were won by the party alliance "Georgian Dream". The alliance also won the presidential elections in October 2013, when Giorgi Margvelashvili from "Georgian Dream" was elected president by a clear majority. In October 2016, another round of parliamentary elections was held, which the governing alliance of parties won by a strong majority.

Since the time of the Rose Revolution, the Georgian government has made major efforts to consolidate democracy and the rule of law, achieve alignment with European legal standards, fight corruption and create a more conducive climate for investment. When President Margvelashvili assumed office in autumn 2013, some amendments to the constitution entered into force, transforming Georgia from a presidential republic into a parliamentary democracy.

One of the government's goals is to enhance local self-government. In 2006, Georgia had its first-ever municipal elections. In 2010, the mayor of the capital, Tbilisi, was elected directly for the first time. In 2014, people were also able to directly elect the mayors of regional capitals. In February 2014, a new law was adopted which devolved further tasks to the municipalities.

A court building in Tbilisi
Relations with the European Union

Partnership with Western countries

Georgia is seeking partnership with Western countries. The country is very interested in joining NATO and, in the longer term, accede to the EU. In 2004, the three South Caucasus republics of Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan were made part of the Neighbourhood Policy initiative of the European Union. In 2009, this led to the creation of the Eastern Partnership, which also includes Ukraine, Moldova and Belarus.

In June 2014, the EU and Georgia signed an association and free trade agreement, which entered into force on 1 July 2016.

European Monitoring Mission in Georgia (EUMM)
Tensions in relations with Russia

Suspended diplomatic relations

Russia's support for the breakaway Georgian territories of Abkhazia and South Ossetia is putting enormous strain on the relations between Tbilisi and Moscow. In August 2008, the conflict escalated into a five-day war. Since that time, Russia and Georgia have had no diplomatic relations. A ceasefire was agreed, brokered by the European Union. A civilian monitoring mission (European Union Monitoring Mission in Georgia, EUMM) is monitoring compliance with the terms agreed.

Russia has recognised Abkhazia and South Ossetia as independent states. In the international community, the majority of countries – including Germany – has condemned the conclusion of "alliance treaties" between Russia and the two regions, noting that they violate international law. However, the Georgian government is trying to improve relations with Russia. Since 2012, trade with Russia has gradually been resumed.

Social situation

High unemployment rate

Due to the Abkhazia and South Ossetia conflicts, there are more than 250,000 internally displaced persons in Georgia. Their displacement is exacerbating poverty in the country, which is already severe. According to World Bank figures, unemployment was 11.5 per cent in 2017. However, that rate does not take account of smallholders engaged in subsistence farming or of the countless day labourers, petty traders and own-account workers. According to estimates, the actual unemployment rate in rural areas is about 40 per cent. In surveys, around 70 per cent of the population describe themselves as underemployed. The latest Human Development Index ranks Georgia 70th out of 189 countries (HDI).

Settlement for internally displaced persons in Saguramo, Georgia
Georgia: A farmer repairing a combine harvester
Economic situation

Strengthening the agricultural sector

The government's efforts to liberalise the economy and build a more enabling environment for private enterprise have won international recognition. In the World Bank's Doing Business Report 2018, which rates the business climate in 190 countries, Georgia ranks an impressive ninth.

However, the majority of the population benefits very little from this generally positive trend of economic development. Some 45 per cent of people are employed in agriculture, producing primarily in order to meet their own needs. The development of agriculture is being hampered by inefficient land use, poor infrastructure, the low quality of processed agricultural goods and poor training.

Landscape in Georgia
Development potential

Extractive resources, renewable energy and tourism

Georgia has great development potential. Since independence, it has laid the legal foundations for the establishment of a stable democracy. The new legislation must, however, still be implemented and enforced more systematically.

Georgia's geographical location makes it an important connecting point between Europe and Asia. One major factor here is the transport of oil and gas from the Caspian region to the EU. Georgia also has its own deposits of extractive resources, such as manganese and gold. Its abundance of water and other renewable energy sources offers far-reaching potential for Georgia not only to meet its own energy requirements, but also to export energy.

The scenic beauty of the Caucasus also harbours great potential for international tourism.

German development cooperation with Georgia

In the field of bilateral development cooperation, Germany is Georgia's second largest bilateral donor, after the US. At the Georgian-German government consultations in August 2017, development projects worth a total of up to 272.9 million euros were agreed. Most of this funding (up to 218 million euros) is being provided in the form of loans.

Cooperation with Georgia is part of the BMZ's regional approach to the South Caucasus, which in turn has been closely aligned with the European Neighbourhood Policy. Since 2018, cooperation has focused on the following priority areas:

  • Sustainable economic development
  • Environmental policy, protection and sustainable use of natural resources
  • Democracy, civil society and public administration
  • An employee of a wine testing lab in Tbilisi is testing the quality of Georgian wines.
    Sustainable economic development

    Financial products for small and medium-sized enterprises

    ProCredit Bank (PCB) Georgia, which specialises in financial products for MSMEs, was established with support from KfW Development Bank. It now has 58 branches across the country.

  • National park in Georgia
    Environmental policy and protection of natural resources

    Promoting renewable energy, setting up national parks

    With German support, the capacity of the Georgian energy sector has been increased significantly in recent years. Cooperation now focuses on boosting energy efficiency and promoting renewable energies.

  • Citizens' office in Telavi, Georgia
    Democracy, civil society, administration

    Making headway on democratisation

    In Georgia, the development of democratic and market-based institutions has advanced significantly in recent years. Germany's development cooperation is helping to accelerate this process. One particular focus of these activities is on the inclusion of ethnic minorities and participation by women.

An employee of a wine testing lab in Tbilisi is testing the quality of Georgian wines.
Sustainable economic development

Financial products for small and medium-sized enterprises

Following the disintegration of the Soviet Union, industry in Georgia was in a state of collapse. Economic recovery was chiefly led by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs). Today, they account for 90 per cent of all businesses in Georgia. Yet many start-ups initially lacked seed capital. Georgian banks tended to regard all MSMEs as not creditworthy.

ProCredit Bank (PCB) Georgia, which specialises in financial products for MSMEs, was established with support from KfW Development Bank. It now has 58 branches across the country and has become Georgia's third-largest bank.

At the regional level, KfW is supporting small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), as well as housing construction, through the European Fund for Southeast Europe (EFSE).

One key aspect of Georgia's economic development is cooperation with neighbouring countries in the Caucasus region. In order to facilitate the movement of goods and services, Germany is supporting the removal of trade barriers.

With a view to promoting exports to the European market, Technical Cooperation projects are also supporting measures to enhance quality assurance, bring production into line with international standards and improve the marketing of Georgian products.

In parallel, German experts are providing advice to governmental and private education institutions in order to improve basic and continuing training for skilled personnel and to bring training more closely into line with the needs of the private sector. At the end of 2016, the first complete "dual" (industry-based and school-based) vocational training programme for winegrowers was set up in Georgia. Also, up to 15 dual vocational training programmes are being developed and gradually introduced in the tourism and construction sectors, based on close cooperation with the private sector.

National park in Georgia
Environmental policy and protection of natural resources

Promoting renewable energy, setting up national parks

With German support, the capacity of the Georgian energy sector has been increased significantly in recent years. Cooperation now focuses on boosting energy efficiency and promoting renewable energies.

The Black Sea Energy Transmission System was founded in April 2010. It is being co-financed by Germany, and supports efforts by Georgia and its neighbours to link up their national power grids and connect them with Europe.

Georgia has major potential in the fields of hydropower and geothermal power. In order to strengthen the use of renewable energy, Germany is supporting, inter alia, the construction of small hydropower plants. Georgia now generates as much as 90 per cent of its electricity from hydropower.

Thanks to the extraordinary diversity of flora and fauna in the region, the Caucasus is one of 35 global biodiversity hotspots. Under a regional nature conservation programme, the three countries of the South Caucasus – Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia – are receiving support for the creation of national parks and for linking such parks across borders. A Transboundary Joint Secretariat (TJS) has been set up to provide advice to governments and national park administrations and to secure the exchange of knowledge among the three countries. Germany is supporting the TJS.

In order to ensure sustainable natural resource management, Germany has assisted Georgia in developing relevant strategies, adapting its planning processes and drafting environmental legislation.

Support has been provided to training facilities and environmental education centres. As a result, environmental education programmes are now not only reaching the schools but also, increasingly, the population at large.

 

Citizens' office in Telavi, Georgia
Democracy, civil society, administration

Making headway on democratisation

In Georgia, the development of democratic and market-based institutions has advanced significantly in recent years.

Germany's development cooperation is helping to accelerate this process. One particular focus of these activities is on the inclusion of ethnic minorities and participation by women.

The BMZ and its implementing organisations are particularly active in the following areas:

  • Advice on legislation in the areas of civil, commercial and administrative law
  • Reform of the legal and judicial system and of public financial management
  • Promotion of transparent and efficient administration
  • Municipal development (improving governance and local government services, establishing citizens' offices, modernising infrastructure including water supply/sanitation and solid waste management, establishing municipal partnerships).

Map of Georgia

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Street scene in Tblisi, Georgia

Development facts and figures

  Georgia Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Georgia Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Tbilisi, approximately 1.2 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 69,700 sq km (2017) 357,380 sq km (2017)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 70 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.PUBL.ZS

Public health spending as a percentage of gross domestic product

Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TETC.ZS

Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Further reading

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Georgia

BMZ glossary

Close window

 

Share page